Goldstone Radar Observations Planning: 2016 AJ193 and 2011 UC292


Background


2016 AJ193    
2016 AJ193 will approach within 8.9 lunar distances on 2021 August 21, when it will be a strong
radar target suitable for high-resolution delay-Doppler imaging at Goldstone.  
Observations are scheduled daily on August 20-24, dates that straddle the closest approach.
The asteroid will approach from the south, so the first day when Goldstone can observe it is
on August 20.  

Radar observations are also scheduled in 
Europe on Aug. 22 using DSS-63 (near Madrid) to transmit and Effelsberg
(Germany) as a receiver.  Bistatic Goldstone > Medicina (Italy) and Goldstone > Svetloe (Russia) 
observations are planned on Aug. 23.

2016 AJ193 was discovered in January, 2016 by Pan-STARRS 1.  This asteroid has been observed by
NASA's NEOWISE spacecraft: Masiero et al. (2018) reported a diameter of
1.4 km and a very low optical albedo of 0.03.  The rotation period, pole direction, and spectral
class are unknown.

This asteroid has a highly eccentric orbit with an eccentricity of 0.82.  Its semimajor axis of 3.3 au 
is near the outer edge of the main belt and the aphelion distance 
is 5.9 au, which is beyond the orbit of Jupiter.   Its Tisserand parameter is 2.44, which is consistent
with a cometary orbit.

The asteroid should brighten to about 14th magnitude in August, when it will be an excellent target 
for photometry, vis-IR spectroscopy, and infrared radiometry for several days before the Moon 
brightens and the solar elongations shrink.

Update: Tracking of features in Goldstone delay-Doppler images indicates that the rotation
period of 2016 AJ193 is about 3.5 hours.  Independently, J. Oey and P. Pravec obtained a period 3.508+-0.001 h
using lightcurves obtained in Australia.

2011 UC292
2011 UC292 was discovered in October, 2011 by the Mt. Lemmon Survey.  This object has
an absolute magnitude of 22.8, suggesting a diameter within a factor of two of 90 meters, 
but otherwise nothing is known about its physical properties.  UC292 will approach within
0.023 au (8.9 lunar distances) on August 24, and the view periods overlap the 2016 AJ193
track on August 22.


Goldstone Radar Echoes from Asteroid 2016 AJ193

Goldstone radar images of Asteroid 2016 AJ193

Echo power spectrum obtained on 2021 August 20.  



Orbital and Physical Characteristics  
Name                     2016 AJ193     2011 UC292
Asteroid number          not numbered   not numbered        
Discoverer               Pan-STARRS 1   Mt. Lemmon Survey
Discovery date           2016 Jan 15    2011 Oct 31
Orbit type               Apollo         Apollo
Close approach distance  0.023 au       0.023 au
Close approach distance  8.9 LD         8.9 LD
Close approach date      2021 Aug 21    2021 Aug 24

semimajor axis           3.262 au       1.078 au
eccentricity             0.816          0.259
inclination              22.7 deg       1.7 deg
Orbital period           5.89 y         1.12 y
perihelion distance      0.600 au       0.798 au
aphelion distance        5.924 au       1.357 au
MOID                     0.0242 au      0.0161 au

absolute magnitude (H)   18.5           22.8 
diameter                 1.4 km        ~0.09 km
optical albedo           0.031          unknown
rotation period          unknown        unknown
lightcurve amplitude     unknown        unknown
spectral class           unknown        unknown
PHA?                     Yes            No

Last update: 2021 August 19


Discovery M.P.E.C.


2016 AJ193
https://www.minorplanetcenter.net/mpec/K16/K16B28.html

2011 UC292
https://www.minorplanetcenter.net/mpec/K11/K11V10.html


SNR Calculations

Goldstone SNRs
2016 AJ193
2016 AJ193:  D = 1.4 km,  P = 2.2 h,  OC albedo = 0.1
                                                                       DSS13/GBT
DOY  start date    window       RA, dec   dist  runs  SNR/day SNR/run  SNR/RTT
232 2021 Aug 20  11:57-15:09    53, -31  0.028   192    3100    230       18   DSS-14 Scheduled
233 2021 Aug 21  11:50-19:43    86, -12  0.023   573   13000    620       50   DSS-14 Scheduled
234 2021 Aug 22  12:20-22:29   113, +10  0.028   617    7200    310       25   DSS-14 Scheduled  Overlaps UC292
235 2021 Aug 23  12:51-23:47   129, +21  0.039   486    2000     96        8   DSS-14 Scheduled  
236 2021 Aug 24  13:11-00:27   138, +26  0.053   378     620     35        3   DSS-14 Scheduled
237 2021 Aug 25  13:24-00:50   144, +29  0.067   304     240     15
238 2021 Aug 26  13:31-01:04   147, +31  0.082   253     110      8
239 2021 Aug 27  13:36-01:13   150, +32  0.096   216      57      4
240 2021 Aug 28  13:38-01:18   152, +32  0.111   188      32      3
241 2021 Aug 29  13:40-01:21   154, +33  0.127   166      19      2

This could be suitable for imaging at 3.75 m resolution at DSS-14.
The SNRs are probably not strong enough for 80 MHz imaging with DSS-13 and the GBT 
unless the rotation period is very slow (unknown).

The asteroid will move nearly 100 degrees during dates scheduled for Goldstone observations.
As such, the bandwidths could change considerably.


2011 UC292 2011 UC292: D = 0.09 km, P = 0.5 h, OC albedo = 0.1 start date window RA, dec dist runs SNR/day SNR/run 2021 Aug 19 17:22-05:00 199, +30 0.033 619 27 1 2021 Aug 20 17:45-05:31 207, +31 0.030 696 41 2 2021 Aug 21 18:15-06:10 217, +32 0.027 777 63 2 2021 Aug 22 18:57-06:54 228, +32 0.025 847 89 3 Overlaps AJ193. 2021 Aug 23 19:49-07:40 242, +30 0.023 886 110 4 2021 Aug 24 20:49-08:21 256, +27 0.023 876 120 4 2021 Aug 25 21:49-08:54 269, +23 0.024 817 100 4 2021 Aug 26 22:42-09:18 279, +18 0.026 731 74 3 2021 Aug 27 23:25-09:35 288, +14 0.028 639 50 2 2021 Aug 29 00:00-09:46 294, +10 0.031 555 32 1

Track Assignments


DOY    BOA   BOT   EOT   EOA
232    1000  1130  1330  1400  GSSR Ast 2016 AJ193  Elevation is too low to transmit at 1130!  Start TX at 1200 UT
233    1010  1140  1525  1555  GSSR Ast 2016 AJ193                                             Start TX at 1150 UT
233    2020  2150  0220  0250  CSSR Ast 2016 AJ193  Australia   CANCELLED
234    1410  1540  2010  2040  GSSR Ast 2016 AJ193 
235    1055  1225  1530  1600  GSSR Ast 2016 AJ193                                             Start TX at 1251 UT
236    1135  1305  1530  1600  GSSR Ast 2016 AJ193                                             Start TX at 1311 UT

Goldstone and Canberra tracks:
        UT                            UT         PDT               Duration Round-trip     
DOY     Date              Asteroid    TX Window  TX Window         hh:mm    time (sec) SNR/run  Observer
232     Aug 20    DSS-14  2016 AJ193  1200-1330  0500-0630 Aug 20   1:30     28         230     Naidu         

233     Aug 21    DSS-14  2016 AJ193  1150-1525  0450-0825 Aug 21   3:35     23         620     Naidu      

233-234 Aug 21-22 DSS-43  2016 AJ193  2150-0220  1450-1920 Aug 21   4:30     23                 CANCELLED

234     Aug 22    DSS-14  2016 AJ193  1540-2010  0840-1310 Aug 22   4:30     28         310     Brozovic          
234     Aug 22    DSS-14  2011 UC292  1900-2010  1900-1310 Aug 22   1:10     25           3  

235     Aug 23    DSS-14  2016 AJ193  1250-1530  0550-0830 Aug 23   2:40     39          96     Benner     Medicina and Svetloe
Also receive at Medicina & Svetloe

236     Aug 24    DSS-14  2016 AJ193  1310-1530  0610-0830 Aug 24   2:20     53          35     Brozovic        

The beginning-of-transmit times scheduled differ from actual times because
we requested telescope time when the uncertainties in the rise/set times were considerably
larger than they are in Aug. 2021, and as the orbit improved, the rise times moved up to 30 minutes later.

High elevations for 2016 AJ193 will not be a problem during any of the Goldstone tracks.

Medicina:
Aug 23 0306-1601 (horizons = 10 degrees).  The asteroid will be visible at Medicina
for the entire Goldstone track.

Svetloe (Quasar VLBI antenna):
Aug 23 1225-1530 UT (entire Goldstone track)
Note: Goldstone transmissions can't start until 1251 UT.

Earlier plans for receiving echoes at Sardinia have been cancelled because the facility will be
offline for maintenance.

Plans to transmit with DSS-63 and receive at Effelsberg have also been cancelled.



Uncertainties

2016 AJ193
JPL/Horizons solution 45, # obs: 224 (2010-2021)
2021 Aug 19
 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2021-Aug-18 00:00 *m   14.26714 -39.14491 0.05948365374014      0.915        2.31       0.000351
 2021-Aug-19 00:00 *m   23.62194 -38.50882 0.04591285026322      1.304        4.36       0.000328
 2021-Aug-20 00:00 *    39.48141 -35.62297 0.03368400708402      2.065        9.70       0.000279 *
 2021-Aug-21 00:00 *    65.38433 -25.37101 0.02485011380173      3.320       21.58       0.000178 *
 2021-Aug-22 00:00 *    95.92909  -4.06538 0.02359563166908      3.440       23.41       0.000192 *
 2021-Aug-23 00:00 *   118.31112  13.68842 0.03087025622803      2.065       10.33       0.000311 *
 2021-Aug-24 00:00 *   131.52312  22.52276 0.04251592538603      1.217        4.19       0.000361 *
 2021-Aug-25 00:00 *   139.44480  26.88271 0.05588225208381      0.825        2.06       0.000381

JPL/Horizons solution 42, # obs: 209 (2010-2021)
2021 August 16
 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2021-Aug-18 00:00      14.28177 -39.18264 0.05944271055804      1.810        4.63       0.000560
 2021-Aug-19 00:00  m   23.65361 -38.55533 0.04587327688382      2.622        8.94       0.000501
 2021-Aug-20 00:00  m   39.55067 -35.67607 0.03364821357238      4.121       19.64       0.000381 *
 2021-Aug-21 00:00  m   65.51175 -25.40900 0.02482589732533      6.277       41.30       0.000183 *
 2021-Aug-22 00:00  m   96.06947  -4.07640 0.02359538695268      5.729       39.73       0.000426 *
 2021-Aug-23 00:00  m  118.41402  13.67126 0.03088910015713      2.884       14.73       0.000658 *
 2021-Aug-24 00:00  m  131.59357  22.50089 0.04254323220964      1.503        5.05       0.000730 *
 2021-Aug-25 00:00  m  139.49552  26.86138 0.05591324447640      1.008        2.27       0.000751

JPL/Horizons solution 29, # obs: 147 (2010-2016)
2021 May 21
 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2021-Aug-18 00:00 *m   14.26466 -39.14784 0.05948371715035     22.131       32.23       0.001623
 2021-Aug-19 00:00 *m   23.61924 -38.51280 0.04591268114840     28.743       59.67       0.001448
 2021-Aug-20 00:00 *    39.47914 -35.62872 0.03368339843578     39.058      117.05       0.001419 *
 2021-Aug-21 00:00 *    65.38447 -25.37864 0.02484872747265     50.600      197.59       0.002280 *
 2021-Aug-22 00:00 *    95.93238  -4.07157 0.02359352879952     46.653      131.69       0.003677 *
 2021-Aug-23 00:00 *   118.31508  13.68482 0.03086811773556     33.594       47.58       0.004049 *
 2021-Aug-24 00:00 *   131.52655  22.52037 0.04251395774941     24.697       29.16       0.003930 *
 2021-Aug-25 00:00 *   139.44761  26.88092 0.05588041698321     19.064       17.94       0.003792


2011 UC292 JPL/Horizons solution 24, # obs: 95 (2011-2020) 2021 May 24 Date__(UT)__HR:MN R.A._(a-appar)_DEC. delta POS_3sigma DOP_X_3sig RT_delay_3sig 2021-Aug-20 00:00 * 199.28970 30.23832 0.03321702662540 13.524 7.87 0.001399 2021-Aug-21 00:00 * 206.89874 31.29104 0.02984644566235 14.721 9.05 0.001480 2021-Aug-22 00:00 * 216.42384 31.95827 0.02696795711117 15.864 9.51 0.001566 2021-Aug-23 00:00 * 227.97066 31.80978 0.02474738107512 16.838 8.66 0.001643 2021-Aug-24 00:00 * 241.07731 30.36168 0.02336823242233 17.554 7.07 0.001688 2021-Aug-25 00:00 * 254.58427 27.40015 0.02297979308923 17.963 7.97 0.001680 2021-Aug-26 00:00 * 267.11382 23.26864 0.02363044992856 17.982 11.13 0.001615 2021-Aug-27 00:00 * 277.79035 18.69436 0.02524147777852 17.521 13.08 0.001509 2021-Aug-28 00:00 * 286.43871 14.32563 0.02764870693713 16.628 13.02 0.001389 2021-Aug-29 00:00 * 293.30255 10.49645 0.03066977987650 15.473 11.65 0.001274 2021-Aug-30 00:00 * 298.74394 7.28218 0.03414775388452 14.237 9.81 0.001175
Apparent Magnitudes, Solar Elongations, Lunar Elongations, and Lunar Illumination: 2016 AJ193 Date__(UT)__HR:MN R.A._(a-appar)_DEC. delta APmag S-brt S-O-T /r T-O-M/MN_Illu% 2021-Aug-01 00:00 349.41715 -36.74772 0.31804964529316 17.831 6.372 141.7586 /L 70.9/ 45.8736 2021-Aug-02 00:00 349.80197 -36.84666 0.30220278894757 17.702 6.353 142.0125 /L 81.4/ 36.5502 2021-Aug-03 00:00 350.20987 -36.94943 0.28643186253849 17.568 6.334 142.2358 /L 91.9/ 27.7179 2021-Aug-04 00:00 350.64562 -37.05647 0.27073542498483 17.428 6.316 142.4245 /L 102.4/ 19.6411 2021-Aug-05 00:00 351.11514 -37.16832 0.25511206984195 17.282 6.298 142.5745 /L 112.9/ 12.5950 2021-Aug-06 00:00 351.62593 -37.28562 0.23956047299640 17.130 6.281 142.6800 /L 123.2/ 6.8670 2021-Aug-07 00:00 352.18753 -37.40917 0.22407946156142 16.971 6.264 142.7344 /L 133.1/ 2.7479 2021-Aug-08 00:00 352.81231 -37.53992 0.20866811539686 16.802 6.249 142.7291 /L 142.2/ 0.5108 2021-Aug-09 00:00 353.51658 -37.67904 0.19332592071184 16.625 6.235 142.6527 /L 149.3/ 0.3800 2021-Aug-10 00:00 354.32220 -37.82793 0.17805300882363 16.436 6.222 142.4905 /L 152.8/ 2.4962 2021-Aug-11 00:00 355.25920 -37.98819 0.16285053703427 16.236 6.212 142.2222 /L 150.9/ 6.8840 2021-Aug-12 00:00 356.36981 -38.16155 0.14772131272707 16.020 6.204 141.8193 /L 144.5/ 13.4305 2021-Aug-13 00:00 357.71529 -38.34960 0.13267084856536 15.788 6.199 141.2408 /L 135.5/ 21.8806 2021-Aug-14 00:00 359.38771 -38.55286 0.11770921891599 15.535 6.199 140.4245 /L 125.4/ 31.8473 2021-Aug-15 00:00 1.53141 -38.76844 0.10285449778649 15.258 6.205 139.2725 /L 114.9/ 42.8345 2021-Aug-16 00:00 4.38448 -38.98345 0.08813955631859 14.952 6.221 137.6214 /L 104.6/ 54.2660 2021-Aug-17 00:00 8.36419 -39.15547 0.07362665792094 14.612 6.252 135.1796 /L 95.1/ 65.5197 2021-Aug-18 00:00 14.25325 -39.14988 0.05944219288185 14.235 6.309 131.3822 /L 87.2/ 75.9665 2021-Aug-19 00:00 23.61252 -38.51564 0.04587036150645 13.834 6.411 125.0252 /L 82.7/ 85.0162 2021-Aug-20 00:00 39.48915 -35.62888 0.03364106792955 13.487 6.608 113.3263 /L 84.8/ 92.1689 2021-Aug-21 00:00 65.43262 -25.35629 0.02481176607372 13.594 7.032 90.6515 /L 99.4/ 97.0637 2021-Aug-22 00:00 96.00745 -4.01477 0.02357568929932 15. 8. 57.1597 /L 125.2/ 99.5134 2021-Aug-23 00:00 118.38114 13.73079 0.03087025449794 19. 10. 33.0423 /L 139.6/ 99.5129 2021-Aug-24 00:00 131.57701 22.54907 0.04252670949652 21. 11. 23.5244 /L 138.4/ 97.2183 2021-Aug-25 00:00 139.48657 26.89977 0.05589845022097 22. 11. 21.1679 /L 131.0/ 92.9028 2021-Aug-26 00:00 144.57652 29.30141 0.07003043019874 23. 11. 21.2287 /L 121.8/ 86.9052
2011 UC292 JPL/Horizons solution 40 Date__(UT)__HR:MN R.A._(a-appar)_DEC. delta APmag S-brt S-O-T /r T-O-M/MN_Illu% 2021-Aug-15 00:00 178.77402 25.04542 0.05406727343682 24. n.a. 33.7748 /T 57.6/ 42.8345 2021-Aug-16 00:00 181.41509 25.90721 0.04957115854794 23. n.a. 35.5993 /T 69.5/ 54.2660 2021-Aug-17 00:00 184.59218 26.86993 0.04520322740155 23. n.a. 37.9150 /T 80.9/ 65.5197 2021-Aug-18 00:00 188.47141 27.93330 0.04099501656667 22. n.a. 40.8514 /T 91.5/ 75.9665 2021-Aug-19 00:00 193.27741 29.07828 0.03699181328591 22. n.a. 44.5775 /T 101.0/ 85.0162 2021-Aug-20 00:00 199.30448 30.24542 0.03325876468486 21. n.a. 49.3088 /T 108.8/ 92.1689 2021-Aug-21 00:00 206.90647 31.29683 0.02988879230439 20. n.a. 55.3010 /T 114.2/ 97.0637 2021-Aug-22 00:00 216.41952 31.96350 0.02701044904809 19.497 n.a. 62.8104 /T 116.6/ 99.5134 2021-Aug-23 00:00 227.94871 31.81683 0.02478910339238 18.756 n.a. 71.9822 /T 115.9/ 99.5129 2021-Aug-24 00:00 241.03478 30.37475 0.02340776126329 18.104 n.a. 82.6552 /T 112.8/ 97.2183 2021-Aug-25 00:00 254.52414 27.42308 0.02301545654378 17.599 n.a. 94.1907 /T 108.9/ 92.9028 2021-Aug-26 00:00 267.04397 23.30174 0.02366091778057 17.266 n.a. 105.5777 /T 106.0/ 86.9052 2021-Aug-27 00:00 277.71873 18.73423 0.02526623846352 17.093 n.a. 115.8651 /T 105.4/ 79.5830 2021-Aug-28 00:00 286.37028 14.36796 0.02766804327260 17.046 n.a. 124.5367 /T 107.3/ 71.2809 2021-Aug-29 00:00 293.23942 10.53808 0.03068441570707 17.082 n.a. 131.5278 /T 111.4/ 62.3157 2021-Aug-30 00:00 298.68655 7.32145 0.03415852431332 17.171 n.a. 137.0276 /T 117.4/ 52.9760 2021-Aug-31 00:00 303.04426 4.66652 0.03797130977267 17.290 n.a. 141.3015 /T 124.6/ 43.5333

Setups


2016 AJ193: We don't know the rotation period, but given the diameter of 1.4 km, the period should be
slower than 2.2 hours.  If so, then the bandwidth could be as large as 64 Hz.

By the time of the radar observations, the Doppler uncertaities should be small enough that we may
not see a Doppler correction if the bandwidth is wide.   


CW setup:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TX polarization           RCP
RCV polarization          LCP & RCP
Frequency hops:           no hopping
Bandwidth:               5000 Hz 
TXoffset                 +500 Hz
FFT                      2500 for 2.0 Hz resolution 

Ranging setups:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-usec
baud             10 usec
code            127
PRP            1270 usec
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       787 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution       6.15 Hz
TXoffset       +100 Hz  (echo in column 80)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-usec 
baud             11 usec
code            127
PRP            1397 usec
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       716 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution      5.6 Hz
TXoffset     +100 Hz  (echo in column 82) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-usec 
baud              1 usec
code            255
ncoh              8
bandwidth       490 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution        3.8 Hz
TXoffset        +50 Hz  (echo in column 77)
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Instructions

NOTE: Data should be moved to the appropriate subdirectories in aardvark:/export/data0/2016aj193/raw/

POINTING:

  OSOD and predicts are on aardvark:



POINTING  

...Not yet available...

Transmit offsets are given in millidegrees.  


PRDX.OUT.14f-14-14.s?? TRANSMITTER: STATION #14, RECEIVER: STATION #14 RECEIVER U.T. RANGE DOPPLER LHA DEC RA EL

2016 AJ193 GOLDSTONE MASTERLOG

============================================================================== ----------------------------------------------------- ...Not yet available... -----------------------------------------------------
Dr. Lance A. M. Benner | PHONE: (818) 354-7412 Mail Stop 183-601 | FAX: (818) 393-4445 Jet Propulsion Laboratory | email: lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov California Institute of Technology | Plan: To live long and prosper Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 https://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2016AJ193/2016AJ193.2021.goldstone.planning.html

Asteroid Radar Astronomy
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