Goldstone Radar Observations Planning: (159402) 1999 AP10


Background


1999 AP10 was discovered on 1999 January 14 by LINEAR.
This asteroid has an absolute magnitude of 16.1, a rotation period of 7.9 hours,
and a lightcurve amplitude of about 0.4 magnitudes.  

Arecibo delay-Doppler imaging in 2009 led by M. Brozovic revealed an object 
about 2 km in diameter whose leading edge is rounded at some longitudes
but has flat regions and a more tapered appearance at others. 

This asteroid will approach within 0.0807 au on 2020 October 19.  Observations at Goldstone are  
are scheduled on a single date on October 24.   Observations will probably be scheduled at Arecibo, although 
the dates are not yet available.  

We are expecting SNRs at Goldstone that should be strong enough for 
delay-Doppler imaging.  The SNRs at Arecibo should be strong enough for imaging at 7.5 m/pixel.

The 2020 Earth flyby is the closest by this asteroid until after the year 2500.


Orbital and Physical Characteristics  
Name                     1999 AP10
Asteroid number          159402
Discoverer               LINEAR
Discovery date           1999 January 14
orbit type               Amor
Close approach dist.     0.0806 au 
Close approach dist.     31.4 lunar distances     
Close approach date      2020 Oct 19

semimajor axis           2.377 au                 
eccentricity             0.575
inclination              7.6 deg                 
Orbital period           3.665 years              
perihelion distance      1.010 au                 
aphelion distance        3.744 au                 
Tisserand parameter      

absolute magnitude (H)   16.1
diameter                ~2 km                 
optical albedo           unknown                  
rotation period          7.91 h
lightcurve amplitude     0.4 mag
pole direction           unknown                  
spectral class           unknown                  
PHA?                     No

Last update: 2020 July 13

Discovery M.P.E.C.

1999 AP10
https://www.minorplanetcenter.net/mpec/J99/J99B05.html


SNR Calculations

Goldstone SNRs
SNRs assume Ptx = 250 kW and D = 2 km (based on previous radar results), P = 7.9 h, radar albedo = 0.1, Tsys = 17 K.
w  DOY      start date       window        RA, dec   dist   runs   SNR/day SNR/run
40 275     2020 Oct 01     01:18-10:14    340,  +3  0.121    133      36      3
40 276     2020 Oct 02     01:08-10:14    339,  +4  0.118    140      42      4
40 277     2020 Oct 03     00:58-10:13    339,  +6  0.114    147      48      4
40 278     2020 Oct 04     00:48-10:13    339,  +8  0.110    154      55      5
41 279     2020 Oct 05     00:38-10:13    338, +10  0.107    162      63      5
41 280     2020 Oct 06     00:27-10:14    338, +12  0.104    170      72      6
41 281     2020 Oct 07     00:16-10:14    338, +14  0.101    179      82      7
41 282     2020 Oct 08     00:05-10:15    337, +16  0.098    188      92      7
41 282-283 2020 Oct 08-09  23:53-10:16    337, +18  0.095    197     100      8
41 283-284 2020 Oct 09-10  23:42-10:17    337, +21  0.093    207     120      9   Elevation > 75 degrees:
41 284-285 2020 Oct 10-11  23:29-10:19    336, +24  0.090    217     130     10     0410-0535
41 285-286 2020 Oct 11-12  23:17-10:21    336, +26  0.088    227     140     10     0350-0545
42 286-287 2020 Oct 12-13  23:04-10:23    336, +29  0.086    237     160     11     0335-0550
42 287-288 2020 Oct 13-14  22:51-10:26    335, +32  0.085    247     170     12     0325-0550
42 288-289 2020 Oct 14-15  22:37-10:29    335, +35  0.083    257     180     13     0315-0545
42 289-290 2020 Oct 15-16  22:22-10:32    334, +38  0.082    267     200     13     0310-0540
42 290-291 2020 Oct 16-17  22:07-10:36    334, +42  0.081    277     210     14     0305-0530
42 291-292 2020 Oct 17-18  21:51-10:41    333, +45  0.081    287     220     14     0310-0515
42 292-293 2020 Oct 18-19  21:34-10:47    333, +48  0.081    296     220     14     0320-0450
43 293-294 2020 Oct 19-20  21:16-10:54    332, +51  0.081    306     230     14   
43 294-295 2020 Oct 20-21  20:57-11:02    332, +55  0.081    315     230     14
43 295-296 2020 Oct 21-22  20:35-11:12    331, +58  0.081    325     230     14
43 296-297 2020 Oct 22-23  20:11-11:25    330, +61  0.082    336     220     13
43 297-298 2020 Oct 23-24  19:44-11:42    330, +64  0.083    348     220     13  Scheduled 0350-1140 UT
43 298-299 2020 Oct 24-25  19:11-12:05    329, +67  0.084    363     210     12
43 299-300 2020 Oct 25-26  18:31-12:41    328, +70  0.086    383     200     11
44 300-301 2020 Oct 26-27  17:36-13:57    326, +73  0.087    416     190     11
44 301-302 2020 Oct 27-28  15:58-12:03    325, +75  0.089    485     190     10  Circumpolar starts
44 302-303 2020 Oct 28-29  17:29-13:19    322, +78  0.091    474     170      9
44 303-304 2020 Oct 29-30  15:40-13:21    319, +80  0.093    463     160      8
44 304-305 2020 Oct 30-31  14:58-11:27    315, +83  0.096    452     150      7
44 305-306 2020 Oct 31-01  15:57-07:33    307, +85  0.098    441     130      7
44 306-307 2020 Nov 01-02  18:37-06:34    294, +86  0.100    431     120      6
45 307-308 2020 Nov 02-03  16:52-04:37    267, +87  0.103    420     110      6
45 308-309 2020 Nov 03-04  14:15-02:00    228, +88  0.105    410     100      5
45 309-310 2020 Nov 04-05  12:07-00:07    199, +87  0.108    401      91      5
45 310     2020 Nov 05     11:01-23:04    184, +85  0.111    391      82      4
45 311-312 2020 Nov 06-07  10:26-01:52    176, +84  0.114    381      74      4
45 312-313 2020 Nov 07-08  06:50-00:41    171, +83  0.116    371      66      4
45 313     2020 Nov 08     07:18-23:55    168, +81  0.120    362      60      3
46 314     2020 Nov 09     07:32-23:21    166, +80  0.123    353      54      3
46 315-316 2020 Nov 10-11  06:13-00:09    164, +79  0.126    344      48      3
46 316     2020 Nov 11     06:32-23:38    162, +77  0.129    335      44      3
46 317     2020 Nov 12     06:44-23:13    161, +76  0.132    327      39      2
46 318-319 2020 Nov 13-14  06:52-22:52    160, +75  0.135    320      36      2
46 319-320 2020 Nov 14-15  06:57-01:23    159, +74  0.138    287      31      2  Circumpolar ends

Horizons were adjusted up to 35 deg on dates when the asteroid is circumpolar (Oct 27-Nov 15)
to make the asteroid appear to set.

SNRs assume Ptx = 250 kW and D = 2 km (based on previous radar results).


1999 AP10 ARECIBO SNRs
 start date    window        RA, dec   dist   runs     SNR/day   SNR/run
2020 Oct 01  01:38-03:14    340,  +3  0.122    23        450       100
2020 Oct 02  01:25-03:16    339,  +4  0.118    28        590       120
2020 Oct 03  01:13-03:17    339,  +6  0.114    32        730       140
2020 Oct 04  01:03-03:18    339,  +8  0.111    36        880       150
2020 Oct 05  00:53-03:17    338,  +9  0.107    40       1000       170
2020 Oct 06  00:44-03:16    338, +11  0.104    44       1200       190
2020 Oct 07  00:35-03:13    338, +13  0.101    47       1400       210
2020 Oct 08  00:28-03:10    337, +16  0.098    50       1600       240
2020 Oct 09  00:21-03:06    337, +18  0.095    48       1700       260
2020 Oct 10  00:15-03:01    337, +21  0.093    54       2000       290
2020 Oct 11  00:11-02:54    336, +23  0.091    54       2200       310
2020 Oct 12  00:09-02:45    336, +26  0.088    53       2400       340
2020 Oct 13  00:09-02:34    336, +29  0.087    50       2500       370
2020 Oct 14  00:12-02:20    335, +32  0.085    45       2400       390
2020 Oct 15  00:22-01:58    335, +35  0.084    35       2000       370
2020 Oct 16  00:57-01:11    334, +38  0.082     5        600       270

Arecibo SNRs assume Ptx = 700 kW, Tsys = 25 K, and D = 2 km.


Track Assignments


DOY  BOA   BOT   EOT   EOA
298        0350  1140           GSSR AST 1999 AP10

Goldstone tracks:
     UT       UT          PST                  Duration Round-trip     
DOY  Date     TX Window   TX Window            hh:mm    time (sec)   SNR/RTT  
298  Oct 24   0350-1140   2050-0440 Oct 23-24   7:50       83          13  Scheduled 0350-1140 UT

1999 AP10 will complete nearly one full rotation during the Goldstone track.


Arecibo tracks:
UT                      UT          PST                Round-trip  
Date                    TX Window   TX Window          time (sec)  
...Not available yet, but probably between Oct. 8-15...



Uncertainties

1999 AP10
JPL/Horizons solution 120, # obs: 863 (1999-2020)
2020 July 13

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(a-appar)_DEC.            delta POS_3sigma  DOP_S_3sig  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2020-Oct-01 00:00 *   339.80892   2.40063 0.12232556645954      0.918        0.07        0.24       0.000367
 2020-Oct-02 00:00 *   339.49690   3.94584 0.11845692213411      0.950        0.07        0.25       0.000367
 2020-Oct-03 00:00 *   339.18108   5.59354 0.11472342355563      0.985        0.08        0.29       0.000366
 2020-Oct-04 00:00 *   338.86124   7.34917 0.11113186923930      1.022        0.10        0.36       0.000364
 2020-Oct-05 00:00 *   338.53705   9.21799 0.10768985552792      1.062        0.13        0.46       0.000360
 2020-Oct-06 00:00 *   338.20813  11.20487 0.10440577338105      1.104        0.16        0.58       0.000356
 2020-Oct-07 00:00 *   337.87401  13.31408 0.10128878235795      1.148        0.20        0.72       0.000350
 2020-Oct-08 00:00 *   337.53410  15.54905 0.09834875479430      1.195        0.24        0.87       0.000343
 2020-Oct-09 00:00 *   337.18771  17.91203 0.09559618225198      1.244        0.29        1.04       0.000334
 2020-Oct-10 00:00 *   336.83401  20.40374 0.09304203603275      1.295        0.34        1.22       0.000324
 2020-Oct-11 00:00 *   336.47202  23.02306 0.09069757437547      1.347        0.39        1.41       0.000311
 2020-Oct-12 00:00 *   336.10060  25.76662 0.08857409145646      1.400        0.44        1.61       0.000297
 2020-Oct-13 00:00 *   335.71840  28.62849 0.08668260800433      1.452        0.50        1.82       0.000281
 2020-Oct-14 00:00 *   335.32381  31.59998 0.08503351049268      1.503        0.56        2.02       0.000263
 2020-Oct-15 00:00 *m  334.91490  34.66951 0.08363615508465      1.552        0.61        2.22       0.000243
 2020-Oct-16 00:00 *m  334.48929  37.82263 0.08249846215342      1.597        0.66        2.41       0.000222
 2020-Oct-17 00:00 *m  334.04403  41.04228 0.08162653429056      1.636        0.71        2.58       0.000199
 2020-Oct-18 00:00 *m  333.57530  44.30921 0.08102433194478      1.670        0.75        2.73       0.000175
 2020-Oct-19 00:00 *m  333.07816  47.60255 0.08069343504222      1.696        0.79        2.86       0.000150
 2020-Oct-20 00:00 *m  332.54613  50.90055 0.08063290868102      1.713        0.81        2.95       0.000125
 2020-Oct-21 00:00 *m  331.97063  54.18136 0.08083928060721      1.722        0.83        3.01       0.000102
 2020-Oct-22 00:00 *m  331.34023  57.42382 0.08130662983469      1.723        0.84        3.04       0.000082
 2020-Oct-23 00:00 *m  330.63949  60.60821 0.08202677841927      1.715        0.84        3.04       0.000069
 2020-Oct-24 00:00 *m  329.84713  63.71678 0.08298957063573      1.698        0.83        3.00       0.000067
 2020-Oct-25 00:00 *m  328.93311  66.73417 0.08418321636512      1.675        0.81        2.94       0.000076
 2020-Oct-26 00:00 *m  327.85368  69.64754 0.08559467057505      1.645        0.79        2.86       0.000094
 2020-Oct-27 00:00 *m  326.54262  72.44641 0.08721001999833      1.610        0.76        2.76       0.000114
 2020-Oct-28 00:00 *m  324.89487  75.12222 0.08901485149899      1.571        0.73        2.64       0.000136
 2020-Oct-29 00:00 *m  322.73362  77.66738 0.09099458287005      1.529        0.69        2.52       0.000158
 2020-Oct-30 00:00 *   319.73833  80.07333 0.09313474418425      1.484        0.66        2.39       0.000180
 2020-Oct-31 00:00 *   315.26936  82.32619 0.09542120480188      1.438        0.62        2.26       0.000201


Apparent Magnitudes, Solar Elongations, Lunar Elongations, and Lunar Illumination: Date__(UT)__HR:MN R.A._(a-appar)_DEC. delta APmag S-brt S-O-T /r T-O-M/MN_Illu% 2020-Aug-02 00:00 346.42718 -19.28062 0.56036289694881 16.774 n.a. 147.9443 /L 50.5/ 96.9375 2020-Aug-04 00:00 346.67230 -19.22399 0.53879626535232 16.644 n.a. 149.4526 /L 25.4/ 99.7723 2020-Aug-06 00:00 346.89024 -19.16346 0.51773094412343 16.512 n.a. 150.9706 /L 7.607/ 94.3524 2020-Aug-08 00:00 347.07970 -19.09764 0.49716776552824 16.376 n.a. 152.4973 /L 25.6/ 82.3852 2020-Aug-10 00:00 347.23937 -19.02490 0.47710791868959 16.237 n.a. 154.0312 /L 48.6/ 65.9859 2020-Aug-12 00:00 347.36798 -18.94336 0.45755269396973 16.096 n.a. 155.5702 /L 71.9/ 47.2287 2020-Aug-14 00:00 347.46430 -18.85085 0.43850329655759 15.951 n.a. 157.1113 /L 96.1/ 28.2886 2020-Aug-16 00:00 347.52718 -18.74487 0.41996071509976 15.804 n.a. 158.6500 /L 121.6/ 11.9333 2020-Aug-18 00:00 347.55565 -18.62255 0.40192547502491 15.653 n.a. 160.1804 /L 148.5/ 1.7639 2020-Aug-20 00:00 347.54902 -18.48057 0.38439704567944 15.499 n.a. 161.6940 /L 172.5/ 1.2910 2020-Aug-22 00:00 347.50696 -18.31509 0.36737292409012 15.343 n.a. 163.1791 /L 151.7/ 11.7306 2020-Aug-24 00:00 347.42946 -18.12182 0.35084796952942 15.185 n.a. 164.6199 /L 123.1/ 30.5909 2020-Aug-26 00:00 347.31662 -17.89601 0.33481462222959 15.024 n.a. 165.9945 /L 95.1/ 52.9491 2020-Aug-28 00:00 347.16845 -17.63250 0.31926384884647 14.863 n.a. 167.2732 /L 68.1/ 73.8663 2020-Aug-30 00:00 346.98484 -17.32560 0.30418615097551 14.703 n.a. 168.4153 /L 42.0/ 89.7107 2020-Sep-01 00:00 346.76565 -16.96899 0.28957227082683 14.545 n.a. 169.3674 /L 17.2/ 98.3872 2020-Sep-03 00:00 346.51080 -16.55562 0.27541358807650 14.392 n.a. 170.0646 /L 9.839/ 99.2357 2020-Sep-05 00:00 346.22036 -16.07752 0.26170228301979 14.248 n.a. 170.4406 /L 32.8/ 92.7857 2020-Sep-07 00:00 345.89460 -15.52574 0.24843134860664 14.115 n.a. 170.4463 /T 56.4/ 80.3271 2020-Sep-09 00:00 345.53403 -14.89014 0.23559456743255 13.993 n.a. 170.0703 /T 80.2/ 63.4849 2020-Sep-11 00:00 345.13950 -14.15924 0.22318656020573 13.882 n.a. 169.3422 /T 104.7/ 44.1096 2020-Sep-13 00:00 344.71222 -13.32001 0.21120292023535 13.778 n.a. 168.3172 /T 130.5/ 24.6260 2020-Sep-15 00:00 344.25388 -12.35761 0.19964030877288 13.678 n.a. 167.0553 /T 158.1/ 8.5893 2020-Sep-17 00:00 343.76680 -11.25502 0.18849629970757 13.582 n.a. 165.6083 /T 172.6/ 0.5049 2020-Sep-19 00:00 343.25401 -9.99277 0.17776898724640 13.486 n.a. 164.0155 /T 142.4/ 3.7535 2020-Sep-21 00:00 342.71887 -8.54859 0.16745701631805 13.391 n.a. 162.3042 /T 112.6/ 17.8002 2020-Sep-23 00:00 342.16453 -6.89717 0.15756084967765 13.295 n.a. 160.4904 /T 84.2/ 38.2828 2020-Sep-25 00:00 341.59342 -5.00982 0.14808500325763 13.199 n.a. 158.5806 /T 57.5/ 59.9470 2020-Sep-27 00:00 341.00724 -2.85407 0.13904025038637 13.103 n.a. 156.5727 /T 33.0/ 78.7866 2020-Sep-29 00:00 340.40692 -0.39349 0.13044538558982 13.008 n.a. 154.4566 /T 14.1/ 92.2992 2020-Oct-01 00:00 339.79263 2.41209 0.12232872891478 12.915 n.a. 152.2148 /T 22.2/ 99.1072 2020-Oct-03 00:00 339.16371 5.60558 0.11472950935216 12.826 n.a. 149.8234 /T 43.1/ 98.7283 2020-Oct-05 00:00 338.51850 9.23045 0.10769900733682 12.744 n.a. 147.2530 /T 64.7/ 91.4654 2020-Oct-07 00:00 337.85416 13.32673 0.10130111621864 12.671 n.a. 144.4719 /T 85.8/ 78.2411 2020-Oct-09 00:00 337.16642 17.92451 0.09561176522915 12.613 n.a. 141.4513 /T 105.8/ 60.4443 2020-Oct-11 00:00 336.44912 23.03490 0.09071639573947 12.573 n.a. 138.1734 /T 123.3/ 40.0448 2020-Oct-13 00:00 335.69366 28.63911 0.08670454718389 12.556 n.a. 134.6417 /T 134.3/ 20.1031 2020-Oct-15 00:00 334.88803 34.67826 0.08366095399611 12.566 n.a. 130.8923 /T 133.5/ 5.1774 2020-Oct-17 00:00 334.01465 41.04853 0.08165378544700 12.606 n.a. 126.9999 /T 122.1/ 0.1870 2020-Oct-19 00:00 333.04576 47.60579 0.08072259621180 12.677 n.a. 123.0749 /T 108.0/ 7.2126 2020-Oct-21 00:00 331.93447 54.18128 0.08086971884139 12.775 n.a. 119.2495 /T 96.4/ 23.6162 2020-Oct-23 00:00 330.59853 60.60473 0.08205783385984 12.897 n.a. 115.6565 /T 89.3/ 44.2665 2020-Oct-25 00:00 328.88580 66.72742 0.08421426746655 13.036 n.a. 112.4084 /T 86.1/ 64.6479 2020-Oct-27 00:00 326.48652 72.43663 0.08724053271499 13.185 n.a. 109.5830 /T 84.6/ 81.7939 2020-Oct-29 00:00 322.66504 77.65477 0.09102413542005 13.337 n.a. 107.2196 /T 83.0/ 93.8349 2020-Oct-31 00:00 315.18527 82.31071 0.09544948989006 13.487 n.a. 105.3237 /T 79.9/ 99.5456 2020-Nov-02 00:00 293.83132 86.16926 0.10040600135594 13.631 n.a. 103.8762 /T 75.0/ 98.2660 2020-Nov-04 00:00 221.96529 87.39902 0.10579291217978 13.766 n.a. 102.8435 /T 69.3/ 90.0027 2020-Nov-06 00:00 181.32165 84.97102 0.11152149966079 13.892 n.a. 102.1854 /L 64.1/ 75.4866 2020-Nov-08 00:00 169.94260 82.10594 0.11751552730645 14.007 n.a. 101.8605 /L 62.0/ 56.2137 2020-Nov-10 00:00 164.87195 79.42584 0.12371076613435 14.111 n.a. 101.8299 /L 65.5/ 34.7085 2020-Nov-12 00:00 161.89825 76.98790 0.13005416961726 14.206 n.a. 102.0585 /L 75.5/ 14.9954 2020-Nov-14 00:00 159.84299 74.78194 0.13650296489895 14.292 n.a. 102.5155 /L 90.5/ 2.3479 2020-Nov-16 00:00 158.25619 72.78508 0.14302352890474 14.369 n.a. 103.1740 /L 107.5/ 0.9479 2020-Nov-18 00:00 156.93075 70.97286 0.14958981219505 14.439 n.a. 104.0106 /L 122.2/ 10.8345 2020-Nov-20 00:00 155.75865 69.32252 0.15618162160822 14.503 n.a. 105.0048 /L 130.3/ 28.1324 2020-Nov-22 00:00 154.67772 67.81392 0.16278344131359 14.560 n.a. 106.1394 /L 128.9/ 48.1500 2020-Nov-24 00:00 153.64892 66.42952 0.16938393017252 14.612 n.a. 107.4000 /L 119.6/ 67.3808 2020-Nov-26 00:00 152.64599 65.15405 0.17597573807937 14.660 n.a. 108.7746 /L 105.6/ 83.5098 2020-Nov-28 00:00 151.65025 63.97404 0.18255538082711 14.704 n.a. 110.2533 /L 89.3/ 94.8098 2020-Nov-30 00:00 150.64796 62.87759 0.18912313988966 14.744 n.a. 111.8277 /L 72.0/ 99.8393

Setups


Due the 7.9 h rotation period and a diameter of roughly 2 km, we are expecting a bandwidth
of roughly 25 Hz.  

CW setup:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TX polarization           RCP
RCV polarization          LCP & RCP
Frequency hops:           no hopping
Bandwidth:               5000 Hz 
TXoffset                  +500 Hz
FFT                      5000 for 1 Hz resolution 

Ranging setups:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-usec
baud             10 usec
code            127
PRP            1270 usec
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       787 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution       6.15 Hz
TXoffset       +100 Hz  (echo in column 80)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-usec 
baud             11 usec
code            127
PRP            1397 usec
ncoh              1 
bandwidth       716 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution      5.6 Hz
TXoffset     +100 Hz  (echo in column 82) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-usec 
baud              1 usec
code            255
ncoh             16
bandwidth       245 Hz   
FFT             128
resolution        1.9 Hz
TXoffset        +50 Hz  (echo in column 116)
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Instructions

NOTE: Data should be moved to the appropriate subdirectories in aardvark:/export/data0/1999ap10/raw/

POINTING:

  OSOD and predicts will be on aardvark:

...not available yet...


POINTING  
                                                          TX Offsets    
Date (UTC)   DOY  hhmmss    RA        Dec         Macro   LHA     Dec    RTT    OSOD

... to be added ...

Transmit offsets are given in millidegrees.  


PRDX.OUT.14f-14-14.?? TRANSMITTER: STATION #14, RECEIVER: STATION #14 RECEIVER U.T. RANGE DOPPLER LHA DEC RA EL

1999 AP10 GOLDSTONE MASTERLOG

============================================================================== Receive TX Setup hops dwell code ncoh FFT runs start -stop OSOD offset Poln Notes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Lance A. M. Benner | PHONE: (818) 354-7412 Mail Stop 183-601 | FAX: (818) 393-4445 Jet Propulsion Laboratory | email: lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov California Institute of Technology | Plan: To live long and prosper Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/1999AP10/1999ap10.2020.planning.html

Asteroid Radar Astronomy
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