NEA RADAR ALBEDO RANKING


Last modified:	2012 Apr 03

Radar albedo values were taken from the references below.  Effective diameters
were taken from papers reporting shape models, but if those are not available,
we used effective diameters from papers using infrared radiometry.

                          Radar  Deff  optical
Rank	Object		 albedo	 (km)  albedo   Class  Notes                
----	------		 ------	 ----  -------  -----  -----               
 1       6178 1986 DA      0.58   2.3    0.14     M      
 2       4660 Nereus       0.44   0.33   0.54     E     Total power radar albedo due to high SC/OC
 3      33342 1998 WT24    0.42   0.415  0.34     E     Total power radar albedo due high SC/OC
 4       2100 Ra-Shalom    0.36   2.3    0.13     K     Shepard et al. 2008
 5      29075 1950 DA      0.35   1.16   0.25     M     Prograde pole model (Busch et al. 2007)
 6       2063 Bacchus      0.33   0.63   0.56     QS    Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
 6      99942 Apophis      0.33   0.27   0.33     Q     D from Delbo et al. 2007; no shape model yet available
 8       3199 Nefertiti    0.32   2.2    0.41     S
 9            2008 EV5     0.29   0.40   0.12     CX    Shape from Busch et al. 2011
10       7822 1991 CS      0.25   1.1    0.14     S     Deff from convex hull; upper bounds on the albedos
11            2002 CE26    0.24   3.5    0.07     C     Refers to the primary
11            2005 CR37    0.24   1.0    0.05           Deff from a biaxial ellipsoid model 
13      29075 1950 DA      0.23   1.30   0.20     M     Retrograde pole model (Busch et al. 2007)
14       4179 Toutatis     0.21   2.45   0.19     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
14      25143 Itokawa      0.21   0.33   0.36     S     Equivalent spherical diameter from Hayabusa spacecraft model
16        433 Eros         0.20  22      0.21     S     1988 Arecibo observations
17       1685 Toro         0.19   3.3    0.43     S     Deff from Ostro et al. (1983)
18       6489 Golevka      0.18   0.53   0.15     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
19       4486 Mithra       0.17   1.69   0.17     S     Prograde model from Brozovic et al. 2010; diameter and
                                                        albedos are similar for the retrograde model.
20       4769 Castalia     0.16   1.0    0.32     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
20       8567 1996 HW1     0.16   2.02   0.34     Q     Used the 3D model from Magri et al. 2011
22       1627 Ivar         0.15   8.1    0.14     S      
22       1866 Sisyphus     0.15   8.2    0.18     S
22       3908 Nyx          0.15   1.0    0.16     V     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
25       1580 Betulia      0.13   5.39   0.10     C     Used the shape model from Magri et al. 2007
25      54509 YORP         0.13   0.113  0.11     S     Used the shape model from Taylor et al. 2007
27       1620 Geographos   0.12   2.56   0.07     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
27       2062 Aten         0.12   0.94   0.20     S     Deff from Cruikshank et al. (1977)
27      52760 1998 ML14    0.12   1.0    0.17     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
                                                        Taxonomy from Hicks and Weissman, pers. comm.
27     136617 1994 CC      0.12   0.62   0.42     Q     Brozovic et al. in press.  Average of X-band and S-band radar albedos
31       1036 Ganymed      0.11   38.5   0.20     S     Radar albedo from Ostro et al. 1991 has been corrected; 
                                                        based on Arecibo observations from 1988.
31       1862 Apollo       0.11   1.5    0.23     Q      
31      10115 1992 SK      0.11   0.02   0.29     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
31      66391 1999 KW4 a   0.11   1.5    0.20     S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
31      66391 1999 KW4 b   0.11   0.4             S     Equivalent spherical albedo from shape model
31            1998 KY26    0.11   0.03   0.12     CBFG  Deff is from the Ostro et al. 1999 shape model
37       1915 Quetzalcoatl 0.10   0.5    0.19     S
38       3757 1982 XB      0.06   0.6    0.13     S
38      53319 1999 JM8    ~0.06  ~7     ~0.02     P     Diameter is twice the average visible range extent in 
                                                        delay-Doppler images.  Taxonomy from E.S. Howell, pers. comm.
40       1566 Icarus       0.04   1.27   0.33     S     Deff from Harris (1998)

N:      40
Mean:   0.20 +/- 0.12     
Median: 0.16              


Upper bounds: 4544 Xanthus <3.9 >0.22 <5.4 ? Assumes P > 2 h 2101 Adonis <1.3 >0.14 <3.1 ? Assumes P > 2 h 7335 1989 JA <0.68 >0.36 <2.2 ? Assumes P > 2 h 17511 1992 QN <0.4 >0.6 <1 X Assumes Deff = Dmax 3103 Eger <0.32 >1.5 <0.56 E D=1.5 km is a lower bound from the minimum bandwidth and P=5.7 h 38071 1999 GU3 <0.07 >0.64 <0.08 C? Adopts P = 9.0 days from lightcurves 14827 Hypnos <0.067 >0.74 C (1986 JK)
REFERENCES ========== Benner, L. A. M., S. J. Ostro, J. D. Giorgini, R. F. Jurgens, D. L. Mitchell, R. Rose, K. D. Rosema, M. A. Slade, R. Winkler, D. K. Yeomans, D. B. Campbell, J. F. Chandler, and I. I. Shapiro 1997. Radar detection of near-Earth asteroids 2062 Aten, 2101 Adonis, 3103 Eger, 4544 Xanthus, and 1992 QN. Icarus 130, 296-312. Benner, L. A. M., S. J. Ostro, K. D. Rosema, J. D. Giorgini, D. Choate, R. F. Jurgens, R. Rose, M. A. Slade, M. L. Thomas, R. Winkler, and D. K. Yeomans 1999a. Radar observations of asteroid 7822 (1991 CS). Icarus 137, 247-259. Benner, L. A. M., R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, K. D. Rosema, J. D. Giorgini, D. K. Yeomans, R. F. Jurgens, D. L. Mitchell, R. Winkler, R. Rose, M. A. Slade, and M. L. Thomas 1999b. Radar observations of asteroid 2063 Bacchus. Icarus 139, 309-327. Benner, L. A. M., S. J. Ostro, R. S. Hudson, K. D. Rosema, R. F. Jurgens, D. K. Yeomans, D. B. Campbell, J. F. Chandler, and I. I. Shapiro 2002. Radar observations of asteroid 3908 Nyx. Icarus 158, 379-388. Benner, L. A. M., S. J. Ostro, M. C. Nolan, J.-L. Margot, J. D. Giorgini, R. S. Hudson, R. F. Jurgens, M. A. Slade, E. S. Howell, D. B. Campbell, and D. K. Yeomans 2002. Radar observations of asteroid 1999 JM8. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 37, 779-792. Benner, L. A. M., M. C. Nolan, S. J. Ostro, J. D. Giorgini, C. Magri, and J. L. Margot 2006. Near-Earth asteroid 2005 CR37: Radar images of a candidate contact binary. Icarus, submitted. Brozovic, M., S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, J. D.Giorgini, R. F. Jurgens, R. Rose, M. C. Nolan, A. A. Hine, C. Magri, D. J. Scheeres, and J. L. Margot. Radar observations and a physical model of asteroid 4660 Nereus, a prime space mission target. Icarus 201, 153-166 (2009). Brozovic, M., L. A. M. Benner, C. Magri, S. J. Ostro, D. J. Scheeres, J. D. Giorgini, M. C. Nolan, J. L. Margot, R. F. Jurgens, and R. Rose. Radar observations and a physical model of contact binary asteroid 4486 Mithra. Icarus 208, 207-220 (2010). Brozovic, M., L. A. M. Benner, M. C. Nolan, E. S. Howell, P. A. Taylor, C. Magri,, D. J. Scheeres, J. D. Giorgini, J. T. Pollock, P. Pravec, A. Galad, M. W. Busch, J. L. Margot, M. K. Shepard, D. E. Reichart, K. M. Ivarsen, J. B. Haislip, A. P. LaCluyze, J. Jao, M. A. Slade, K. J. Lawrence, and M. D. Hicks. Radar observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth asteroid (136617) 1994 CC. Icarus, in press. Busch, M. W., S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, J. D. Giorgini, R. F. Jurgens, R. Rose, C. Magri, P. Pravec, D. J. Scheeres, and S. B. Broschart 2006. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of near-Earth asteroid 10115 (1992 SK) 2006. Icarus 181, 145-155. Busch, M. W., J. D. Giorgini, S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, R. F. Jurgens, R. Rose, M. D. Hicks, P. Pravec, P. Kusnirak, M. J. Ireland, D. J. Scheeres, S. B. Broschart, C. Magri, M. C. Nolan, and A. A. Hine. Physical modeling of near-Earth asteroid (29075) 1950 DA. Icarus 190, 608-621 (2007). Busch, M. W., L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, J. D. Giorgini, R. F. Jurgens, R. Rose, D. J. Scheeres, C. Magri, M. C. Nolan, and A. A. Hine. Physical properties of near-Earth asteroid (33342) 1998 WT24. Icarus 195, 614-621 (2008). Busch, M. W., S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, M. Brozovic, J. D. Giorgini, J. S. Jao, D. J. Scheeres, C. Magri, M. C. Nolan, E. S. Howell, P. A. Taylor, J. L. Margot, and W. Brisken. Radar observations and the shape of near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5. Icarus 212, 649-660 (2011). Cruikshank, D. P., and T. J. Jones 1977. The diameter and albedo of asteroid 1976 AA. Icarus 31, 427-429. Giorgini, J. D., L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, M. C. Nolan, and M. W. Busch. Predicting the Earth encounters of (99942) Apophis. Icarus 193, 1-19 (2008). Harris, A. W. 1998. A thermal model for near-Earth asteroids. Icarus 131, 291-301. Hudson, R. S., and S. J. Ostro 1994. Shape of asteroid 4769 Castalia (1989 PB) from inversion of radar images. Science 263, 940-943. Hudson, R. S. and S. J. Ostro 1995. Shape and non-principal axis spin state of asteroid 4179 Toutatis. Science 270, 84-86. Hudson, R. S., and S. J. Ostro 1999. Physical model of asteroid 1620 Geographos from radar and optical data. Icarus 140, 369-378. Hudson, R. S., S. J. Ostro, R. F. Jurgens, K. D. Rosema, J. D. Giorgini, R. Winkler, R. Rose, D. Choate, R. A. Cormier, C. R. Franck, R. Frye, D. Howard, D. Kelley, R. Littlefair, M. A. Slade, L. A. M. Benner, M. L. Thomas, D. L. Mitchell, P. W. Chodas, D. K. Yeomans, D. J. Scheeres, P. Palmer, A. Zaitsev, Y. Koyama, A. Nakamura, A. W. Harris, and M. N. Meshkov 2000. Radar observations and physical model of asteroid 6489 Golevka. Icarus 148, 37-51. Magri, C., S. J. Ostro, D. J. Scheeres, M. C. Nolan, J. D. Giorgini, L. A. M . Benner, and J. L. Margot. Radar observations and a physical model of asteroid 1580 Betulia. Icarus 186, 152-177 (2007). Magri, C., E. S. Howell, M. C. Nolan, P. A. Taylor, Y. R. Fernandez, M. Mueller, R. J. Vervack, L. A. M . Benner, J. D. Giorgini, S. J. Ostro, D. J. Scheeres, M. D. Hicks, H. Rhoades, J. M. Somers, N. M. Gaftonyuk, V. V. Kouprianov, Y. N. Krugly, I. E. Molotov, M. W. Busch, J. L. Margot, V. Benishek, V. Protich-Benishek, A. Galad, D. Higgins, P. Kusnirak, and D. P. Pray. Radar and photometric observations and shape modeling of contact binary near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1. Icarus 214, 210-227. Mahapatra, P. R., S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, K. D. Rosema, R. F. Jurgens, R. Winkler, R. Rose, J. D. Giorgini, D. K. Yeomans, and M. A. Slade 1999. Recent radar observations of asteroid 1566 Icarus. Planet. Space Sci. 47, 987-995. Mahapatra, P. R., L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, R. F. Jurgens, J. D. Giorgini, D. K. Yeomans, J. F. Chandler, and I. I. Shapiro 2002. Radar observations of asteroid 7335 (1989 JA). Planet. Space Sci. 50, 257-260. Ostro, S. J., D. B. Campbell, and I. I. Shapiro 1983. Radar observations of asteroid 1685 Toro. Astron. J. 88, 565-576. Ostro, S. J., D. K. Yeomans, P. W. Chodas, R. M. Goldstein, R. F. Jurgens, and T. W. Tompson 1989. Radar observations of asteroid 1986 JK. Icarus 78, 382-394. Ostro, S. J., D. B. Campbell, J. F. Chandler, A. A. Hine, R. S. Hudson, K. D. Rosema, and I. I. Shapiro 1991a. Asteroid 1986 DA: Radar evidence for a metallic composition. Science 252, 1399-1404. Ostro, S. J., R. S. Hudson, K. D. Rosema, J. D. Giorgini, R. F. Jurgens, D. K. Yeomans, P. W. Chodas, R. Winkler, R. Rose, D. Choate, R. A. Cormier, D. Kelley, R. Littlefair, L. A. M. Benner, M. L. Thomas, and M. A. Slade 1999. Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: 1996 radar observations. Icarus 137, 122-139. Ostro, S. J., P. Pravec, L. A. M. Benner, R. S. Hudson, L. Sarounova, M. D. Hicks, D. L. Rabinowitz, J. V. Scotti, D. J. Tholen, M. Wolf, R. F. Jurgens, M. L. Thomas, J. D. Giorgini, P. W. Chodas, D. K. Yeomans, R. Rose, R. Frye, K. D. Rosema, R. Winkler, and M. A. Slade 1999b. Radar and optical observations of asteroid 1998 KY26. Science 285, 557-559. Ostro, S. J., R. S. Hudson, L. A. M. Benner, M. C. Nolan, J. D. Giorgini, D. J. Scheeres, R. F. Jurgens, and R. Rose 2001. Radar observations of asteroid 1998 ML14. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 36, 1225-1236. Pravec, P., L. Sarounova, L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, M. D. Hicks, R. F. Jurgens, J. D. Giorgini, M. A. Slade, D. K. Yeomans, D. L. Rabinowitz, Y. N. Krugly, and M. Wolf 2000. Slowly rotating asteroid 1999 GU3. Icarus 148, 589-593. Shepard, M. K., L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, A. W. Harris, K. D. Rosema, I. I. Shapiro, and J. F. Chandler 2000. Radar observations of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom. Icarus 147, 520-529. Shepard, M. K., J. L. Margot, C. Magri, M. C. Nolan, J. Schlieder, B. Estes, S. J. Bus, E. L. Volquardsen, A. S. Rivkin, L. A. M. Benner, J. D. Giorgini, S. J. Ostro, and M. W. Busch 2006. Radar and infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroid 2002 CE26. Icarus 184, 198-210 (2006) Shepard, M. K., B. E. Clark, M. C. Nolan, L. A. M. Benner, S. J. Ostro, J. D. Giorgini, F. Vilas, K. Jarvis, S. Lederer, L. Lim, T. McConnochie, J. F. Bell, J. L. Margot, A. S. Rivkin, and P. Pravec. Multi-wavelength observations of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom. Icarus 193, 20-38 (2008). Taylor, P. A., J.-L. Margot, D. Vokrouhlicky, D. J. Scheeres, P. Pravec, S. C. Lowry, A. Fitzsimmons, M. C. Nolan, S. J. Ostro, L. A. M. Benner, J. D. Giorgini, and C. Magri. Increasing spin rate of asteroid 54509 (2000 PH5) a result of the YORP effect. Science 316, 274-277 (2007). Veeder, G. J., M. S. Hanner, D. L. Matson, E. F. Tedesco, L. A. Lebofsky, and A. T. Tokunaga 1989. Radiometry of near-Earth asteroids. Astron. J. 97, 1211-1219. Zaitsev, A. L., S. J. Ostro, S. P. Ignatov, D. K. Yeomans, A. G. Petrenko, D. Choate, O. K. Margorin, R. A. Cormier, V. V. Mardyshkin, R. Winkler, O. N. Rghiga, R. F. Jurgens, V. A. Shubin, J. D. Giorgini, A. P. Krivtsov, K. D. Rosema, Y. F. Kokuka, M. A. Slade, A. L. Gavrik, V. B. Andreev, D. V. Ivanov, P. S. Peshin, Y. Koyama, M. Yoshikava, and A. Nakamura 1997. Intercontinental bistatic radar observations of 6489 Golevka (1991 JX). Planet. Space Sci. 45, 771-778.